Purpose of review Although allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for fungi has been performed for many years, evidence clearly demonstrating its clinical benefit are still lacking. Here, we reviewed the available studies assessing efficacy and safety of AIT for molds. Recent findings Studies on AIT for fungi were performed only for the two predominating mold species in the external environment, namely Cladosporium and Alternaria. There is no evidence for other mold species. Recent finding in the literature are lacking; the 2 most recent studies on AIT for molds were published in 2011. Overall, 13 studies were identified (the first was published in 1986), but only nine of these compared AIT to placebo. The studies are small (median study sample size, 27 patients) and of low quality, owing to several defects leading to moderate-to-high risk of bias. Symptoms improvement and medication use reduction, which are the main outcome measures of the studies, were inconsistently demonstrated. There are some concerns about safety with Cladosporium extracts, whereas vaccines with Alternaria extracts seem to be safe and well tolerated. Summary Low strength evidence suggests that mold AIT is efficacious for the treatment of respiratory allergies. High-quality studies with an adequate sample size are needed.

Is immunotherapy with fungal vaccines effective?

Di Bona D.;Albanesi M.;MacChia L.
2019

Abstract

Purpose of review Although allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for fungi has been performed for many years, evidence clearly demonstrating its clinical benefit are still lacking. Here, we reviewed the available studies assessing efficacy and safety of AIT for molds. Recent findings Studies on AIT for fungi were performed only for the two predominating mold species in the external environment, namely Cladosporium and Alternaria. There is no evidence for other mold species. Recent finding in the literature are lacking; the 2 most recent studies on AIT for molds were published in 2011. Overall, 13 studies were identified (the first was published in 1986), but only nine of these compared AIT to placebo. The studies are small (median study sample size, 27 patients) and of low quality, owing to several defects leading to moderate-to-high risk of bias. Symptoms improvement and medication use reduction, which are the main outcome measures of the studies, were inconsistently demonstrated. There are some concerns about safety with Cladosporium extracts, whereas vaccines with Alternaria extracts seem to be safe and well tolerated. Summary Low strength evidence suggests that mold AIT is efficacious for the treatment of respiratory allergies. High-quality studies with an adequate sample size are needed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/242692
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