Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has proven to be a safe and effective technique in the treatment of respiratory failure complicating various medical and surgical diseases. In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in its adoption for ventilatory assistance in immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing bone marrow, liver, lung, cardiac, and kidney transplantation. Weaning from the ventilator after liver transplantation can take longer because of unsatisfactory gas exchange during various attempts of T-piece trials. Rapid extubation followed by an immediate NIV application should be considered in this setting to shorten and accelerate the weaning process in those recipients who do not completely fulfill the criteria for safe extubation. By adding the pressure support (PS) mode with a continuous positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), NIV could prevent the loss of vital capacity and impede severe lung derecruitment following extubation. Clinical experience has shown that properly delivered NIV mostly benefits moderately dyspneic recipients in acute respiratory failure, while it appears less promising and efficient in patients ventilated for extended periods of time. It has proven safe and efficient mainly as (1) a tool to promote an early ventilatory discontinuation and extubation; (2) a prophy- lactic strategy for preventing postoperative pulmonary complications; and (3) a simple method to start with in cases of acute hypoxic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure. The improvements in arterial hypoxemia, the decreased ventilatory demand provided with an inspiratory support, as well as the scarcity of hemodynamic repercussions are among the major benefits of this method.

Noninvasive ventilation in adult liver transplantation

G. Marulli;
2008

Abstract

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has proven to be a safe and effective technique in the treatment of respiratory failure complicating various medical and surgical diseases. In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in its adoption for ventilatory assistance in immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing bone marrow, liver, lung, cardiac, and kidney transplantation. Weaning from the ventilator after liver transplantation can take longer because of unsatisfactory gas exchange during various attempts of T-piece trials. Rapid extubation followed by an immediate NIV application should be considered in this setting to shorten and accelerate the weaning process in those recipients who do not completely fulfill the criteria for safe extubation. By adding the pressure support (PS) mode with a continuous positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), NIV could prevent the loss of vital capacity and impede severe lung derecruitment following extubation. Clinical experience has shown that properly delivered NIV mostly benefits moderately dyspneic recipients in acute respiratory failure, while it appears less promising and efficient in patients ventilated for extended periods of time. It has proven safe and efficient mainly as (1) a tool to promote an early ventilatory discontinuation and extubation; (2) a prophy- lactic strategy for preventing postoperative pulmonary complications; and (3) a simple method to start with in cases of acute hypoxic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure. The improvements in arterial hypoxemia, the decreased ventilatory demand provided with an inspiratory support, as well as the scarcity of hemodynamic repercussions are among the major benefits of this method.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/242484
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