Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are snail-transmitted helminths causing respiratory diseases in infected cats. The shedding of feline lungworm L1s and their infectivity to the snail intermediate host, after administration of anthelminthic products to cats, are poorly documented. To assess the efficacy of 8.3% fipronil, 10% (S)-methoprene, 0.4% eprinomectin and 8.3% praziquantel (i.e. eprinomectin formulation) and 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin (i.e. moxidectin formulation) against these nematodes and to determine the number of days post-treatment until viable L1s are released in the faeces, 384 animals were screened by faecal examination. Of the 54 positive animals (i.e., 14.1%; 7.3% A. abstrusus, 6.2% T. brevior and 0.5% coinfected), 36 were randomly allocated to four groups. Groups A and B were composed of cats positive for T. brevior and treated with the eprinomectin and with the moxidectin formulations, respectively, whereas cats in groups C and D were positive to A. abstrusus and treated with the eprinomectin and the moxidectin formulations, respectively. Prior to and every day after treatment, faecal samples were analysed by the Baermann technique and the number of larvae per gram of faeces determined, and again four weeks after treatment, to assess the efficacy of a single administration of the products. In addition, to evaluate the pre- and post-treatment infectivity of L1s to snail intermediate hosts, one/two snails per cat were infected with 100 L1s collected from the faeces of enrolled animals and then digested 28 days p.i. Based on L1s faecal counts, the efficacy of the eprinomectin and the moxidectin formulations at 28 days was 100% for both A. abstrusus and T. brevior, with a mean number of days of 7.9 ± 1.2 in group A, 7.8 ± 1.9 in B, 6.9 ± 1.6 in C and 8.9 ± 2.0 in D to become negative. Following the artificial digestion, active L3s of T. brevior and A. abstrusus were found in 160 (87.4%) experimentally infected snails. The results of this study demonstrate that a single administration of the two formulations is effective in the treatment of A. abstrusus and T. brevior infections and that during the post-treatment period live L1s are shed for up to 8.9 ± 2.0 days. L1s of both lungworm species released in the faeces after drug administration are still able to reach the infective larval stage in the infected snails. Hence, preventative measures after the treatment of infected animals should include keeping cats indoors and disposal of their faeces for approximately 10 days to avoid environmental contamination and infection of gastropod intermediate hosts.

Shedding of feline lungworm larvae and their infectivity to snail intermediate hosts after anthelmintic treatment

Cavalera M. A.;Colella V.;Panarese R.;Otranto D.
2019

Abstract

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are snail-transmitted helminths causing respiratory diseases in infected cats. The shedding of feline lungworm L1s and their infectivity to the snail intermediate host, after administration of anthelminthic products to cats, are poorly documented. To assess the efficacy of 8.3% fipronil, 10% (S)-methoprene, 0.4% eprinomectin and 8.3% praziquantel (i.e. eprinomectin formulation) and 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin (i.e. moxidectin formulation) against these nematodes and to determine the number of days post-treatment until viable L1s are released in the faeces, 384 animals were screened by faecal examination. Of the 54 positive animals (i.e., 14.1%; 7.3% A. abstrusus, 6.2% T. brevior and 0.5% coinfected), 36 were randomly allocated to four groups. Groups A and B were composed of cats positive for T. brevior and treated with the eprinomectin and with the moxidectin formulations, respectively, whereas cats in groups C and D were positive to A. abstrusus and treated with the eprinomectin and the moxidectin formulations, respectively. Prior to and every day after treatment, faecal samples were analysed by the Baermann technique and the number of larvae per gram of faeces determined, and again four weeks after treatment, to assess the efficacy of a single administration of the products. In addition, to evaluate the pre- and post-treatment infectivity of L1s to snail intermediate hosts, one/two snails per cat were infected with 100 L1s collected from the faeces of enrolled animals and then digested 28 days p.i. Based on L1s faecal counts, the efficacy of the eprinomectin and the moxidectin formulations at 28 days was 100% for both A. abstrusus and T. brevior, with a mean number of days of 7.9 ± 1.2 in group A, 7.8 ± 1.9 in B, 6.9 ± 1.6 in C and 8.9 ± 2.0 in D to become negative. Following the artificial digestion, active L3s of T. brevior and A. abstrusus were found in 160 (87.4%) experimentally infected snails. The results of this study demonstrate that a single administration of the two formulations is effective in the treatment of A. abstrusus and T. brevior infections and that during the post-treatment period live L1s are shed for up to 8.9 ± 2.0 days. L1s of both lungworm species released in the faeces after drug administration are still able to reach the infective larval stage in the infected snails. Hence, preventative measures after the treatment of infected animals should include keeping cats indoors and disposal of their faeces for approximately 10 days to avoid environmental contamination and infection of gastropod intermediate hosts.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/240516
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