Clinical trials using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor /(VEGF) molecules induce a modest improvement in overall survival, measurable in weeks to just a few months, and tumors respond differently to these agents. In this review article, we have exposed some tumor characteristics and processes that may impair the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic approaches, including genotypic changes on endothelial cells, the vascular normalization phenomenon, and the vasculogenic mimicry. The usage of anti-angiogenic molecules leads to hypoxic tumor microenvironment which enhances tumor invasiveness. The role of tumor-infiltrating cells, including tumor associated macrophages and fibroblasts (TAMs and TAFs) in the therapeutic response to anti-angiogenic settings was also highlighted. Finally, among the new therapeutic approaches to target tumor vasculature, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapy sensitizing and prolonging the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy, have been discussed.
|Titolo:||Limitations of Anti-Angiogenic Treatment of Tumors|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|