The family of retinoic acid receptors (RARs: RARα, -β, and -γ) has remarkable pleiotropy characteristics, since the retinoic acid/RARs pathway is involved in numerous biological processes not only during embryonic development, but also in the postnatal phase and during adulthood. In this review, we trace the roles of RA/RARs signaling in the immune system (where this pathway has both an immunosuppressive role or is involved in the inflammatory response), in hematopoiesis (enhancing hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, progenitor cells differentiation or maintaining the bone marrow microenvironment homeostasis), and in bone remodeling (where this pathway seems to have controversial effects on bone formation or osteoclast activation). Moreover, in this review is shown the involvement of RAR genes in multiple chromosomal rearrangements generating different fusion genes in hematological neoplasms, with a particular focus on acute promyelocytic leukemia and its variant subtypes. The effect of different RARs fusion proteins on leukemic transformation, on patients' outcome, and on therapy response is also discussed.

The Pleiotropic Role of Retinoic Acid/Retinoic Acid Receptors Signaling: From Vitamin A Metabolism to Gene Rearrangements in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

Anelli L.;Zagaria A.;Specchia G.;Albano F.
2019

Abstract

The family of retinoic acid receptors (RARs: RARα, -β, and -γ) has remarkable pleiotropy characteristics, since the retinoic acid/RARs pathway is involved in numerous biological processes not only during embryonic development, but also in the postnatal phase and during adulthood. In this review, we trace the roles of RA/RARs signaling in the immune system (where this pathway has both an immunosuppressive role or is involved in the inflammatory response), in hematopoiesis (enhancing hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, progenitor cells differentiation or maintaining the bone marrow microenvironment homeostasis), and in bone remodeling (where this pathway seems to have controversial effects on bone formation or osteoclast activation). Moreover, in this review is shown the involvement of RAR genes in multiple chromosomal rearrangements generating different fusion genes in hematological neoplasms, with a particular focus on acute promyelocytic leukemia and its variant subtypes. The effect of different RARs fusion proteins on leukemic transformation, on patients' outcome, and on therapy response is also discussed.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/231942
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 10
  • Scopus 14
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 13
social impact