Mitochondrial citrate carrier plays a central role in exporting acetyl-CoA in the form of citrate from mitochondria to cytosol thereby connecting carbohydrate catabolism and lipogenesis. In this study, Yarrowia lipolytica mitochondrial citrate carrier was functionally defined and characterized. Firstly, deletion of Y. lipolytica YlCTP1 and YlYHM2 genes coding putative tricarboxylate mitochondrial carriers were performed. ΔYlctp1 strain did not differ significantly from wild type strain in terms of growth rate, organic acids and lipid production. In contrast, ΔYlyhm2 strain did not grow in liquid citrate-containing minimal medium. Moreover, in glucose-containing lipogenic medium YlYHM2 null mutant strain did not produce citric acid; the production of isocitric acid and lipids were decreased. Reintroduction of YlYHM2 gene as well as heterologous expression of Aspergillus niger gene AnYHM2 into ΔYlyhm2 strain restored the growth in minimal citrate medium and even enhanced citric acid production by 45% in both variants compared with wild type strain during test tube cultivation. Mitochondrial extracts isolated from YlYHM2 null mutant and wild type strain were incorporated into liposomes; citrate/citrate and α-ketoglutarate/α-ketoglutarate homoexchange activities were reduced by 87% and 40% in ΔYlyhm2 strain, respectively, compared with the wild type, whereas citratein/α-ketoglutarateout and α-ketoglutaratein/citrateout heteroexchanges were decreased by 87% and 95%, respectively. YlYhm2p was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and reconstituted into liposomes. Besides high efficiency to citrate and α-ketoglutarate transport, YlYhm2p also transported oxaloacetate, succinate, fumarate, and to a much lesser extent, aconitate, malate, isocitrate, oxoadipate, and glutamate. The activity of reconstituted YlYhm2p was inhibited strongly by SH-blocking reagents, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, and partly by N-ethylmaleimide. Co-expression of YlYHM2 and adenosine monophosphate deaminase YlAMPD genes resulted in the production of 49.7 g/L of citric acid during test tube cultivation, whereas wild type strain accumulated 30.1 g/L of citric acid. Large-scale cultivation in bioreactor of the engineered strain resulted in 97.1 g/L of citric acid production with a process selectivity of 94.2% and an overall citric acid yield of 0.5 g/g. The maximal specific rate of citric acid synthesis was 0.93 g/L/h. Therefore, the physiological role of YlYhm2p in glucose-containing medium is to catalyze both import of citrate into mitochondria for catabolic reactions and export of citrate as a source of acetyl-CoA from mitochondria. Possible shuttles for citrate exporting are discussed. Moreover, for the first time evidence has been given for the improvement of TCA cycle intermediate production by manipulation of a gene coding a mitochondrial carrier.
|Titolo:||The mitochondrial citrate carrier in Yarrowia lipolytica: Its identification, characterization and functional significance for the production of citric acid|
PALMIERI, Ferdinando (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|