Given the growing availability of large datasets and following recent research trends on multi-dimensional modelling, we develop three dimensional (3D) panel data mod- els with hierarchical error components that allow for strong cross-sectional dependence through unobserved heterogeneous global and local factors. We propose consistent es- timation procedures by extending the common correlated e¤ects (CCE) estimation ap- proach proposed by Pesaran (2006). The standard CCE approach needs to be modi ed in order to account for the hierarchical factor structure in 3D panels. Further, we pro- vide the associated asymptotic theory, including new nonparametric variance estimators. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation studies. We also demonstrate the empirical usefulness of the proposed approach through an ap- plication to a 3D panel gravity model of bilateral export flows.
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