Exploiting the biodiversity of crops and their wild relatives is fundamental for maintaining and increasing food security. The species Cynara cardunculus includes three taxa: the globe artichoke, one of the most important Mediterranean vegetables, the leafy cardoon, and the wild cardoon. In this study, genotyping by sequencing (GBS) was successfully applied to reveal thousands of polymorphisms in a C. Cardunculus germplasm collection, including 65 globe artichoke, 9 leafy cardoon, and 21 wild cardoon samples. The collection showed a strong population structure at K = 2, separating the globe artichoke from the leafy and wild cardoon. At higher K values, further substructures were observed, in which the wild cardoon was separated from the leafy cardoon, and the latter included the Spanish wild cardoons, while the wild sample from Portugal was admixed. Moreover, subpopulations within the globe artichoke set were highlighted. Structure analysis restricted to the globe artichoke dataset pointed out genetic differentiation between the ?Catanesi? typology and all the other samples (K = 2). At higher values of K, the separation of the ?Catanesi? group still held true, and green headed landraces from Apulia region, Italy (?Green Apulian?) formed a distinct subpopulation. ?Romaneschi ? artichoke types fell in a variable group with admixed samples, indicating that they should not be considered as a genetically uniform typology. The results of principal component analysis and Neighbor-Joining hierarchical clustering were consistent with structure results, and in addition provided a measure of genetic relationships among individual genotypes. Both analyses attributed the wild material from Spain and Portugal to the cultivated cardoon group, supporting the idea that this might be indeed a feral form of the leafy cardoon. Different reproductive habit and possibly selective pressure led to a slower LD decay in artichoke compared to cardoon. Genotyping by sequencing has proven a reliable methodology to obtain valuable SNPs and assess population genetics in C. Cardunculus.
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|Titolo:||Genotyping-by-sequencing highlights patterns of genetic structure and domestication in artichoke and cardoon|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|