Duplicated sequences are an important source of gene evolution and structural variation within mammalian genomes. Using a read depth approach based on next-generation sequencing, we performed a genome-wide analysis of segmental duplications (SDs) and associated copy number variations (CNVs) in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). By aligning short reads of Olimpia (the reference water buffalo) to the UMD3.1 cattle genome, we identified 1,038 segmental duplications comprising 44.6 Mb (equivalent to ~1.73% of the cattle genome) of the autosomal and X chromosomal sequence in the buffalo genome. We experimentally validated 70.3% (71/101) of these duplications using fluorescent in situ hybridization. We also detected a total of 1,344 CNV regions across 14 additional water buffaloes, amounting to 59.8 Mb of variable sequence or the equivalent of 2.2% of the cattle genome. The CNV regions overlap 1,245 genes that are significantly enriched for specific biological functions including immune response, oxygen transport, sensory system and signal transduction. Additionally, we performed array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) experiments using the 14 water buffaloes as test samples and Olimpia as the reference. Using a linear regression model, a high Pearson correlation (r = 0.781) was observed between the log 2 ratios between copy number estimates and the log 2 ratios of aCGH probes. We further designed Quantitative PCR assays to confirm CNV regions within or near annotated genes and found 74.2% agreement with our CNV predictions. These results confirm sub-chromosome-scale structural rearrangements present in the cattle and water buffalo. The information on genome variation that will be of value for evolutionary and phenotypic studies, and may be useful for selective breeding of both species.

Computational detection and experimental validation of segmental duplications and associated copy number variations in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Catacchio, Claudia R.;Ventura, Mario;
2019

Abstract

Duplicated sequences are an important source of gene evolution and structural variation within mammalian genomes. Using a read depth approach based on next-generation sequencing, we performed a genome-wide analysis of segmental duplications (SDs) and associated copy number variations (CNVs) in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). By aligning short reads of Olimpia (the reference water buffalo) to the UMD3.1 cattle genome, we identified 1,038 segmental duplications comprising 44.6 Mb (equivalent to ~1.73% of the cattle genome) of the autosomal and X chromosomal sequence in the buffalo genome. We experimentally validated 70.3% (71/101) of these duplications using fluorescent in situ hybridization. We also detected a total of 1,344 CNV regions across 14 additional water buffaloes, amounting to 59.8 Mb of variable sequence or the equivalent of 2.2% of the cattle genome. The CNV regions overlap 1,245 genes that are significantly enriched for specific biological functions including immune response, oxygen transport, sensory system and signal transduction. Additionally, we performed array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) experiments using the 14 water buffaloes as test samples and Olimpia as the reference. Using a linear regression model, a high Pearson correlation (r = 0.781) was observed between the log 2 ratios between copy number estimates and the log 2 ratios of aCGH probes. We further designed Quantitative PCR assays to confirm CNV regions within or near annotated genes and found 74.2% agreement with our CNV predictions. These results confirm sub-chromosome-scale structural rearrangements present in the cattle and water buffalo. The information on genome variation that will be of value for evolutionary and phenotypic studies, and may be useful for selective breeding of both species.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/227168
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