Large-scale experiments generating ground-hugging multiphase flows were carried out with the aim of modelling the rate of sedimentation, of pyroclastic density currents. The current was initiated by the impact on the ground of a dense gas-particle fountain issuing from a vertical conduit. On impact, a thick massive deposit was formed. The grain size of the massive deposit was almost identical to that of the mixture feeding the fountain, suggesting that similar layers formed at the impact of a natural volcanic fountain should be representative of the parent grain-size distribution of the eruption. The flow evolved laterally into a turbulent suspension current that sedimented a thin, tractive layer. A good correlation was found between the ratio of transported/sedimented load and the normalized Rouse number of the turbulent current. A model of the sedimentation rate was developed, which shows a relationship between grain size and flow runout. A current fed with coarser particles has a higher sedimentation rate, a larger grain-size selectivity and runs shorter than a current fed with finer particles. Application of the model to pyroclastic deposits of Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei of Southern Italy resulted in sedimentation rates falling inside the range of experiments and allowed definition of the duration of pyroclastic density currents which add important information on the hazard of such dangerous flows. The model could possibly be extended, in the future, to other geological density currents as, for example, turbidity currents. © 2018 International Association of Sedimentologists.
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|Titolo:||The rate of sedimentation from turbulent suspension: An experimental model with application to pyroclastic density currents and discussion on the grain-size dependence of flow runout|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|