Immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of the immune response against viral infections take into account the activation of both innate adaptative response. Innate immune defenses trigger a rapid local response, which is often sufficient to control viral infection, and promotes the subsequent activation of specific immune defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells that constitute a subpopulation of lymphocyte-related cells are a key factor of innate immune response and play a role in defense against viral infections by killing infected cells or by producing cytokines and interacting with adaptative immune system's cells. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activation of NK cells through their interaction with human leukocyte antigens (HLA). KIRs and HLA loci are highly polymorphic and certain HLA-KIRs combinations have been found to protect against viral infections. In this study we review how the KIRs/HLA repertoire may influence the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Results of our study suggest that a combination of KIRs/HLA gene/alleles is able to predict the outcome of viral infection and allows to plan successful customized therapeutic strategies.

[Role of combination NK/KIRs in the natural history of viral infections.]

Saracino, Annalisa;Angarano, Gioacchino;Di Bona, Danilo;
2017

Abstract

Immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of the immune response against viral infections take into account the activation of both innate adaptative response. Innate immune defenses trigger a rapid local response, which is often sufficient to control viral infection, and promotes the subsequent activation of specific immune defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells that constitute a subpopulation of lymphocyte-related cells are a key factor of innate immune response and play a role in defense against viral infections by killing infected cells or by producing cytokines and interacting with adaptative immune system's cells. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activation of NK cells through their interaction with human leukocyte antigens (HLA). KIRs and HLA loci are highly polymorphic and certain HLA-KIRs combinations have been found to protect against viral infections. In this study we review how the KIRs/HLA repertoire may influence the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Results of our study suggest that a combination of KIRs/HLA gene/alleles is able to predict the outcome of viral infection and allows to plan successful customized therapeutic strategies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/202056
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