Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive intermediates of molecular oxygen that act as important second messengers within the cells; however, an imbalance between generation of reactive ROS and antioxidant defense systems represents the primary cause of endothelial dysfunction, leading to vascular damage in both metabolic and atherosclerotic diseases. Endothelial activation is the first alteration observed, and is characterized by an abnormal pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic phenotype of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels. This ultimately leads to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, impairment of the vascular tone and other endothelial phenotypic changes collectively termed endothelial dysfunction(s). This review will focus on the main mechanisms involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction, with particular focus on inflammation and aberrant ROS production and on their relationship with classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, metabolic disorders, and aging. Furthermore, new mediators of vascular damage, such as microRNAs, will be discussed. Understanding mechanisms underlying the development of endothelial dysfunction is an important base of knowledge to prevent vascular damage in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.
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|Titolo:||Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species in endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Citazione:||Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species in endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases / Incalza, MARIA ANGELA; D'Oria, Rossella; Natalicchio, Annalisa; Perrini, Sebastio; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco. - In: VASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 1537-1891. - 100 April 30(2018), pp. 1-19.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|