The most common machine learning approach is supervised learning, which uses labeled data for building predictive models. However, in many practical problems, the availability of annotated data is limited due to the expensive, tedious and time-consuming annotation procedure. At the same, unlabeled data can be easily available in large amounts. This is especially pronounced for predictive modelling problems with a structured output space and complex labels. Semi-supervised learning (SSL) aims to use unlabeled data as an additional source of information in order to build better predictive models than can be learned from labeled data alone. The majority of work in SSL considers the simple tasks of classification and regression where the output space consists of a single variable. Much less work has been done on SSL for structured output prediction. In this study, we address the task of multi-target regression (MTR), a type of structured output prediction, where the output space consists of multiple numerical values. Our main objective is to investigate whether we can improve over supervised methods for MTR by using unlabeled data. We use ensembles of predictive clustering trees in a self-training fashion: the most reliable predictions (passing a reliability threshold) on unlabeled data are iteratively used to re-train the model. We use the variance of the ensemble models' predictions as an indicator of the reliability of predictions. Our results provide a proof-of-concept: The use of unlabeled data improves the predictive performance of ensembles for multi-target regression, but further efforts are needed to automatically select the optimal threshold for the reliability of predictions.

Semi-supervised learning for multi-target regression

CECI, MICHELANGELO;KOCEV, DRAGI;
2015

Abstract

The most common machine learning approach is supervised learning, which uses labeled data for building predictive models. However, in many practical problems, the availability of annotated data is limited due to the expensive, tedious and time-consuming annotation procedure. At the same, unlabeled data can be easily available in large amounts. This is especially pronounced for predictive modelling problems with a structured output space and complex labels. Semi-supervised learning (SSL) aims to use unlabeled data as an additional source of information in order to build better predictive models than can be learned from labeled data alone. The majority of work in SSL considers the simple tasks of classification and regression where the output space consists of a single variable. Much less work has been done on SSL for structured output prediction. In this study, we address the task of multi-target regression (MTR), a type of structured output prediction, where the output space consists of multiple numerical values. Our main objective is to investigate whether we can improve over supervised methods for MTR by using unlabeled data. We use ensembles of predictive clustering trees in a self-training fashion: the most reliable predictions (passing a reliability threshold) on unlabeled data are iteratively used to re-train the model. We use the variance of the ensemble models' predictions as an indicator of the reliability of predictions. Our results provide a proof-of-concept: The use of unlabeled data improves the predictive performance of ensembles for multi-target regression, but further efforts are needed to automatically select the optimal threshold for the reliability of predictions.
9783319178752
9783319178752
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/178011
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