Background: Models of cognitive reserve in aging suggest that individual’s life experience (education, working activity, and leisure) can exert a neuroprotective effect against cognitive decline and may represent an important contribution to successful aging. Aim: The objective of the present study is to investigate the role of cognitive reserve, pre-morbid intelligence, age, and education level, in predicting cognitive efficiency in a sample of healthy aged individuals and with probable mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Two hundred and eight aging participants recruited from the provincial region of Bari (Apulia, Italy) took part in the study. A battery of standardized tests was administered to them to measure cognitive reserve, pre-morbid intelligence, and cognitive efficiency. Protocols for 10 participants were excluded since they did not meet inclusion criteria, and statistical analyses were conducted on data from the remaining 198 participants. A path analysis was used to test the following model: age, education level, and intelligence directly influence cognitive reserve and cognitive efficiency; cognitive reserve mediates the influence of age, education level, and intelligence on cognitive efficiency. Results: Cognitive reserve fully mediates the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence and education level and cognitive efficiency, while age maintains a direct effect on cognitive efficiency. Discussion: Cognitive reserve appears to exert a protective effect regarding cognitive decline in normal and pathological populations, thus masking, at least in the early phases of neurodegeneration, the decline of memory, orientation, attention, language, and reasoning skills. Conclusions: The assessment of cognitive reserve may represent a useful evaluation supplement in neuropsychological screening protocols of cognitive decline.

The role of pre-morbid intelligence and cognitive reserve in predicting cognitive efficiency in a sample of Italian elderly

CAFFO', ALESSANDRO ORONZO
;
LOPEZ, ANTONELLA;SPANO, GIUSEPPINA;SARACINO, GIUSEPPE;GRATTAGLIANO, IGNAZIO;LANCIONI, Giulio;BOSCO, Andrea
2016

Abstract

Background: Models of cognitive reserve in aging suggest that individual’s life experience (education, working activity, and leisure) can exert a neuroprotective effect against cognitive decline and may represent an important contribution to successful aging. Aim: The objective of the present study is to investigate the role of cognitive reserve, pre-morbid intelligence, age, and education level, in predicting cognitive efficiency in a sample of healthy aged individuals and with probable mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Two hundred and eight aging participants recruited from the provincial region of Bari (Apulia, Italy) took part in the study. A battery of standardized tests was administered to them to measure cognitive reserve, pre-morbid intelligence, and cognitive efficiency. Protocols for 10 participants were excluded since they did not meet inclusion criteria, and statistical analyses were conducted on data from the remaining 198 participants. A path analysis was used to test the following model: age, education level, and intelligence directly influence cognitive reserve and cognitive efficiency; cognitive reserve mediates the influence of age, education level, and intelligence on cognitive efficiency. Results: Cognitive reserve fully mediates the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence and education level and cognitive efficiency, while age maintains a direct effect on cognitive efficiency. Discussion: Cognitive reserve appears to exert a protective effect regarding cognitive decline in normal and pathological populations, thus masking, at least in the early phases of neurodegeneration, the decline of memory, orientation, attention, language, and reasoning skills. Conclusions: The assessment of cognitive reserve may represent a useful evaluation supplement in neuropsychological screening protocols of cognitive decline.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/175855
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