Gastrointestinal vascular malformations are responsible for 2-8% of all cases of bleeding and 30-40% of all obscure hemorrhages, being the most frequent cause of occult bleeding in older people. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date report about the use of octreotide in bleeding from both hereditary and acquired vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. A systematic literature search was performed, using the keywords "gastrointestinal vascular malformation", "octreotide", "angiodysplasia", "portal hypertensive gastropathy", "gastric antral vascular ectasia", and "hereditary vascular malformations". The first line therapy of acute/chronic bleeding from digestive vascular malformations is endoscopy, followed by angiographic embolization and surgical resection when this is unsuccessful. In the setting of difficult-to-treat patients, octreotide has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Studies reported in the literature show a high efficacy and safety of octreotide, but described only a small number of enrolled patients, heterogeneous therapeutic schedules and short-term follow-up, with the exception of acute bleeding from esophageal varices. As a consequence, the use of octreotide is not approved in this setting and it is currently still prescribed as an off-label drug. Studies in larger populations are needed to confirm the promising results observed in the small case series reports, so as to provide physicians with a treatment option for patients without available alternatives. Octreotide could also determine a strong decrease in the management costs of these clinical conditions, and especially, could dramatically reduce hospital admission costs.

Gastrointestinal bleeding from vascular malformations: Is octreotide effective to rescue difficult-to-treat patients?

IANNONE, ANDREA;PRINCIPI, MARIABEATRICE;BARONE, Michele;LOSURDO, GIUSEPPE;DI LEO, Alfredo
2016

Abstract

Gastrointestinal vascular malformations are responsible for 2-8% of all cases of bleeding and 30-40% of all obscure hemorrhages, being the most frequent cause of occult bleeding in older people. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date report about the use of octreotide in bleeding from both hereditary and acquired vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. A systematic literature search was performed, using the keywords "gastrointestinal vascular malformation", "octreotide", "angiodysplasia", "portal hypertensive gastropathy", "gastric antral vascular ectasia", and "hereditary vascular malformations". The first line therapy of acute/chronic bleeding from digestive vascular malformations is endoscopy, followed by angiographic embolization and surgical resection when this is unsuccessful. In the setting of difficult-to-treat patients, octreotide has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Studies reported in the literature show a high efficacy and safety of octreotide, but described only a small number of enrolled patients, heterogeneous therapeutic schedules and short-term follow-up, with the exception of acute bleeding from esophageal varices. As a consequence, the use of octreotide is not approved in this setting and it is currently still prescribed as an off-label drug. Studies in larger populations are needed to confirm the promising results observed in the small case series reports, so as to provide physicians with a treatment option for patients without available alternatives. Octreotide could also determine a strong decrease in the management costs of these clinical conditions, and especially, could dramatically reduce hospital admission costs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/171740
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