The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Discrete ash bursts merged at higher altitude and formed a sustained quasi-continuous eruption column. High-resolution near-field videos were recorded on 8-10 May, during the second explosive phase of the eruption, and supplemented by contemporary aerial observations. In the observed period, pulses occurred at intervals of 0.8 to 23.4 s (average, 4.2 s). On the basis of video analysis, the pulse volume and the velocity of the reversely buoyant jets that initiated each pulse were determined. The expansion history of jets was tracked until the pulses reached the height of transition from a negatively buoyant jet to a convective buoyant plume about 100 m above the vent. Based on the assumption that the density of the gas-solid mixture making up the pulse approximates that of the surrounding air at the level of transition from the jet to the plume, a mass flux ranging between 2.2 and 3.5 · 104 kg/s was calculated. This mass eruption rate is in good agreement with results obtained with simple models relating plume height with mass discharge at the vent. Our findings indicate that near-field measurements of eruption source parameters in a pulsating eruption may prove to be an effective monitoring tool. A comparison of the observed pulses with those generated in calibrated large-scale experiments reveals very similar characteristics and suggests that the analysis of near-field sensors could in the future help to constrain the triggering mechanism of explosive eruptions.
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|Titolo:||Mass eruption rates in pulsating eruptions estimated from video analysis of the gas thrust-buoyancy transition - A case study of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland Volcanology|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Citazione:||Mass eruption rates in pulsating eruptions estimated from video analysis of the gas thrust-buoyancy transition - A case study of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland Volcanology / Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús Tumi; Karmann, Sven; Zimanowski, Bernd; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Rietze, Martin; Büttner, Ralf. - In: EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE. - ISSN 1343-8832. - 67:1(2015).|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|