The main aim of this survey paper is to give a detailed self-contained introduction to the field as well as a secure entry into a theory that provides useful tools for understanding and unifying several aspects pertaining, among others, to real and functional analysis and which leads to several applications in constructive approximation theory and numerical analysis. This paper, however, not only presents a survey on Korovkin-type theorems but also contains several new results and applications. Moreover, the organization of the subject follows a simple and direct approach which quickly leads both to the main results of the theory and to some new ones. In Sections 3 and 4, we discuss the first and the second theorem of Korovkin. We obtain both of them from a simple unifying result which we state in the setting of metric spaces (see Theorem 3.2). This general result also implies the multidimensional extension of Korovkin's theorem due to Volkov (see Theorem 4.1). Moreover, a slight extension of it into the framework of locally compact metric spaces allows to extend the Korovkin's theorems to arbitrary real intervals or, more generally, to locally compact subsets of Rd. Throughout the two sections, we present some applications concerning several classical approximation processes ranging from Bernstein operators on the unit interval or on the canonical hypercube and the multidimensional simplex, to Kantorovich operators, from Fejér operators to Abel-Poisson operators, from Sz\'{a}sz-Mirakjan operators to Gauss-Weierstrass operators. We also prove that the first and the second theorems of Korovkin are actually equivalent to the algebraic and the trigonometric version, respectively, of the classical Weierstrass approximation theorem. Starting from Section 5, we enter into the heart of the theory by developing some of the main results in the framework of the space C0(X) of all real-valued continuous functions vanishing at infinity on a locally compact space X and, in particular, in the space C(X) of all real-valued continuous functions on a compact space X. We choose these continuous function spaces because they play a central role in the whole theory and are the most useful for applications. Moreover, by means of them it is also possible to easily obtain some Korovkin-type theorems in weighted continuous function spaces and in Lp-spaces. These last aspects are treated at the end of Section 6 and in Section 8. We point out that we discuss Korovkin-type theorems not only with respect to the identity operator but also with respect to a positive linear operator on C0(X) opening the door to a variety of problems some of which are still unsolved. In particular, in Section 10, we present some results concerning positive projections on C(X), X compact, as well as their applications to the approximation of the solutions of Dirichlet problems and of other similar problems. In Sections 6 and 7, we present several results and applications concerning Korovkin sets for the identity operator. In particular, we show that, if M is a subset of C0 (X) that separates the points of X and if f0 in C0(X) is strictly positive, then f0 ,f 0 M, f0 M2 is a Korovkin set in C0(X). This result is very useful because it furnishes a simple way to construct Korovkin sets, but in addition, as we show in Section 9, it turns out that it is equivalent to the Stone generalization to C0 (X)-spaces of the Weierstrass theorem. We also mention that, at the end of Sections 7 and 10, we present some applications concerning Bernstein-Schnabl operators associated with a positive linear operator and, in particular, with a positive projection. These operators are useful for the approximation of not just continuous functions but also (and this was the real reason for the increasing interest in them) positive semigroups and hence the solutions of initial-boundary value evolution problems. These aspects are briefly sketched at the end of Section 10. For the convenience of the reader and to make the exposition self-contained, we collect all these prerequisites in the \Appendix. There, the reader can also find some new simple and direct proofs of the main properties of Radon measures which are required throughout the paper, so that no a priori knowledge of the theory of Radon measures is needed.

Korovkin-type Theorems and Approximation by Positive Linear Operators

ALTOMARE, Francesco
2010

Abstract

The main aim of this survey paper is to give a detailed self-contained introduction to the field as well as a secure entry into a theory that provides useful tools for understanding and unifying several aspects pertaining, among others, to real and functional analysis and which leads to several applications in constructive approximation theory and numerical analysis. This paper, however, not only presents a survey on Korovkin-type theorems but also contains several new results and applications. Moreover, the organization of the subject follows a simple and direct approach which quickly leads both to the main results of the theory and to some new ones. In Sections 3 and 4, we discuss the first and the second theorem of Korovkin. We obtain both of them from a simple unifying result which we state in the setting of metric spaces (see Theorem 3.2). This general result also implies the multidimensional extension of Korovkin's theorem due to Volkov (see Theorem 4.1). Moreover, a slight extension of it into the framework of locally compact metric spaces allows to extend the Korovkin's theorems to arbitrary real intervals or, more generally, to locally compact subsets of Rd. Throughout the two sections, we present some applications concerning several classical approximation processes ranging from Bernstein operators on the unit interval or on the canonical hypercube and the multidimensional simplex, to Kantorovich operators, from Fejér operators to Abel-Poisson operators, from Sz\'{a}sz-Mirakjan operators to Gauss-Weierstrass operators. We also prove that the first and the second theorems of Korovkin are actually equivalent to the algebraic and the trigonometric version, respectively, of the classical Weierstrass approximation theorem. Starting from Section 5, we enter into the heart of the theory by developing some of the main results in the framework of the space C0(X) of all real-valued continuous functions vanishing at infinity on a locally compact space X and, in particular, in the space C(X) of all real-valued continuous functions on a compact space X. We choose these continuous function spaces because they play a central role in the whole theory and are the most useful for applications. Moreover, by means of them it is also possible to easily obtain some Korovkin-type theorems in weighted continuous function spaces and in Lp-spaces. These last aspects are treated at the end of Section 6 and in Section 8. We point out that we discuss Korovkin-type theorems not only with respect to the identity operator but also with respect to a positive linear operator on C0(X) opening the door to a variety of problems some of which are still unsolved. In particular, in Section 10, we present some results concerning positive projections on C(X), X compact, as well as their applications to the approximation of the solutions of Dirichlet problems and of other similar problems. In Sections 6 and 7, we present several results and applications concerning Korovkin sets for the identity operator. In particular, we show that, if M is a subset of C0 (X) that separates the points of X and if f0 in C0(X) is strictly positive, then f0 ,f 0 M, f0 M2 is a Korovkin set in C0(X). This result is very useful because it furnishes a simple way to construct Korovkin sets, but in addition, as we show in Section 9, it turns out that it is equivalent to the Stone generalization to C0 (X)-spaces of the Weierstrass theorem. We also mention that, at the end of Sections 7 and 10, we present some applications concerning Bernstein-Schnabl operators associated with a positive linear operator and, in particular, with a positive projection. These operators are useful for the approximation of not just continuous functions but also (and this was the real reason for the increasing interest in them) positive semigroups and hence the solutions of initial-boundary value evolution problems. These aspects are briefly sketched at the end of Section 10. For the convenience of the reader and to make the exposition self-contained, we collect all these prerequisites in the \Appendix. There, the reader can also find some new simple and direct proofs of the main properties of Radon measures which are required throughout the paper, so that no a priori knowledge of the theory of Radon measures is needed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/16615
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