Background and purpose: Statins and fibrates can produce mild to life-threatening skeletal muscle damage. Resting chloride channel conductance (gCl), carried by the ClC-1 channel, is reduced in muscles of rats chronically treated with fluvastatin, atorvastatin or fenofibrate, along with increased resting cytosolic calcium in statin-treated rats. A high gCl, controlled by the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), maintains sarcolemma electrical stability and its reduction alters muscle function. Here, we investigated how statins and fenofibrate impaired gCl. Experimental approach: In rats treated with fluvastatin, atorvastatin or fenofibrate, we examined the involvement of PKC in gCl reduction by the two intracellular microelectrodes technique and ClC-1 mRNA level by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. Direct drug effects were tested by patch clamp analysis on human ClC-1 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Key results: Chelerythrine, a PKC inhibitor, applied in vitro on muscle dissected from atorvastatin-treated rats fully restored gCl, suggesting the involvement of this enzyme in statin action. Chelerythrine partially restored gCl in muscles from fluvastatin-treated rats but not in those from fenofibrate-treated rats, implying additional mechanisms for gCl impairment. Accordingly, a decrease of ClC-1 channel mRNA was found in both fluvastatin- and fenofibrate-treated rat muscles. Fenofibric acid, the in vivo metabolite of fenofibrate, but not fluvastatin, rapidly reduced chloride currents in HEK 293 cells. Conclusions and implications: Our data suggest multiple mechanisms underlie the effect of statins and fenofibrate on ClC-1 channel conductance. While statins promote Ca2+-mediated PKC activation, fenofibrate directly inhibits ClC-1 channels and both fluvastatin and fenofibrate impair expression of mRNA for ClC-1.
|Titolo:||Statins and fenofibrate affect skeletal muscle chloride conductance in rats by different impairing ClC-1 channel regulation and expression|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|