BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis is the major cause of vascular access failure in hemodialysis. Adventitial remodeling has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AVF stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate adventitial fibrosis in stenotic AVF and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Forty-four patients undergoing surgery for AVF creation were examined; ten presented AVF failure, with histological-proven AVF stenosis. RESULTS: In stenotic AVF we observed a significant increase of adventitia extracellular matrix deposition and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+ cell numbers; most of these cells were myofibroblast (α-SMA+/vimentin+). Phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (p-PDGFRβ) was significantly increased within the adventitia of stenotic compared to native AVF, along with a marked increase in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, two key kinases in PDGFRβ signalling. Myofibroblasts were the main cell type associated with the activation of p-PDGFRβ. At the same time, we observed a significant adventitial vessels rarefaction in stenotic AVF, as demonstrated by a reduced CD34 expression. This event was associated with a marked reduction in the expression of KDR/fetal liver kinase-1, the main vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The degree of adventitial fibrosis was directly correlated with the extent of adventitial α-SMA and inversely associated with adventitial CD34 expression. Finally, we observed an increase in CD34+/α-SMA+ cells within the adventitia of failed AVF. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that AVF failure is associated with an increased adventitial fibrosis, myofibroblast activation and capillary rarefaction, potentially linked with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In this scenario, our data suggest that PDGF may play a pathogenic role.

Arteriovenous fistula stenosis in hemodialysis patients is characterized by an increased adventitial fibrosis

Simone, S;Loverre, A;Cariello, M;Divella, C;Castellano, G;Gesualdo, L;Pertosa, G;
2014

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis is the major cause of vascular access failure in hemodialysis. Adventitial remodeling has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AVF stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate adventitial fibrosis in stenotic AVF and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Forty-four patients undergoing surgery for AVF creation were examined; ten presented AVF failure, with histological-proven AVF stenosis. RESULTS: In stenotic AVF we observed a significant increase of adventitia extracellular matrix deposition and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+ cell numbers; most of these cells were myofibroblast (α-SMA+/vimentin+). Phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (p-PDGFRβ) was significantly increased within the adventitia of stenotic compared to native AVF, along with a marked increase in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, two key kinases in PDGFRβ signalling. Myofibroblasts were the main cell type associated with the activation of p-PDGFRβ. At the same time, we observed a significant adventitial vessels rarefaction in stenotic AVF, as demonstrated by a reduced CD34 expression. This event was associated with a marked reduction in the expression of KDR/fetal liver kinase-1, the main vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The degree of adventitial fibrosis was directly correlated with the extent of adventitial α-SMA and inversely associated with adventitial CD34 expression. Finally, we observed an increase in CD34+/α-SMA+ cells within the adventitia of failed AVF. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that AVF failure is associated with an increased adventitial fibrosis, myofibroblast activation and capillary rarefaction, potentially linked with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In this scenario, our data suggest that PDGF may play a pathogenic role.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11586/129203
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