A vineyard of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese was surveyed for incidence of esca and xylem sap collection. Sap samples were collected from healthy vines and from those with dual infection by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) and Togninia minima (Tmi) or triple infection by Pch, Tmi and Fomitiporia mediterranea (Fme), during each early spring in a 3-year period (2001–2003). In order to analyse the possible trends in the climatic data, temperature and rainfall were assessed. At sap harvesting, aliquots of sap were assayed for phytotoxicity and extracted with ethyl acetate for phytotoxin recovery. Moreover, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) content was evaluated on several sap samples during the bleeding period. Conidia of Pch and Tmi, mycelium of Fme and their secondary metabolites were found in the sap of the esca-affected vines, indicating that the pathogens and their by-products together with some defence substances were accumulated and then translocated. Bioactivity tests showed toxicity of the sap from esca-affected vines to healthy detached leaves of cv. Sangiovese. The daily amount of sap, the pH, and the volume (Jv) and solute (Js) fluxes were analysed as a function of the infecting fungi. Pullulan, glucogalactomannan(s) and arabinogalactan(s) are the main EPS in the esca-infected vines, whereas in the sap of healthy vines no traces of pullulan were found. Scytalone and isosclerone usually produced in vitro by Pch and Tmi were also detected in the sap of vines infected by Pch and Tmi or by Pch, Tmi and Fme. The endogenous phytohormone content of healthy vines evaluated by the cutting bioassay was different from that of infected vines. Four phenolics belonging to three classes e.g., benzoic acid derivatives, stilbenes and flavonol-glycosides were separated and identified by HPLC.

Effects of three esca-associated fungi on Vitis vinifera L.: V. Changes in the chemical and biological profile of xylem sap from diseased cv. Sangiovese vines

BRUNO, Giovanni Luigi;
2008

Abstract

A vineyard of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese was surveyed for incidence of esca and xylem sap collection. Sap samples were collected from healthy vines and from those with dual infection by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) and Togninia minima (Tmi) or triple infection by Pch, Tmi and Fomitiporia mediterranea (Fme), during each early spring in a 3-year period (2001–2003). In order to analyse the possible trends in the climatic data, temperature and rainfall were assessed. At sap harvesting, aliquots of sap were assayed for phytotoxicity and extracted with ethyl acetate for phytotoxin recovery. Moreover, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) content was evaluated on several sap samples during the bleeding period. Conidia of Pch and Tmi, mycelium of Fme and their secondary metabolites were found in the sap of the esca-affected vines, indicating that the pathogens and their by-products together with some defence substances were accumulated and then translocated. Bioactivity tests showed toxicity of the sap from esca-affected vines to healthy detached leaves of cv. Sangiovese. The daily amount of sap, the pH, and the volume (Jv) and solute (Js) fluxes were analysed as a function of the infecting fungi. Pullulan, glucogalactomannan(s) and arabinogalactan(s) are the main EPS in the esca-infected vines, whereas in the sap of healthy vines no traces of pullulan were found. Scytalone and isosclerone usually produced in vitro by Pch and Tmi were also detected in the sap of vines infected by Pch and Tmi or by Pch, Tmi and Fme. The endogenous phytohormone content of healthy vines evaluated by the cutting bioassay was different from that of infected vines. Four phenolics belonging to three classes e.g., benzoic acid derivatives, stilbenes and flavonol-glycosides were separated and identified by HPLC.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11586/10040
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